→ Breast cancer – what is, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment!

Breast Cancer – that is, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment are vital to have a good health. In addition, the Breast Cancer is the type of the most common cancer among women in the world and in Brazil. This year alone, more than 57 thousand brazilian will start the battle against this cancer. Every four new cases of cancer are discovered, one is breast.

It is relatively rare before 35 years of age. Above this age, its incidence grows gradually, especially after the age of 50. The prevention of the Breast Cancer is not entirely possible in function of the multiplicity of factors related to the emergence of the disease and the fact that several of them are not modifiable.

what is Breast Cancer: The Breast Cancer is characterized by the abnormal proliferation, quickly and disorderly, of the cells of the breast tissue. The disease develops as a result of genetic changes. However, this does not mean that the tumors of the breast are always hereditary. In normal operation, the body replaced the outdated cells by new and healthy cells. The genetic mutations can change the ability of the cell to maintain its division and reproduction under control, producing cells in excess, forming a tumor.

A tumor can be benign (not dangerous to health) or malignant (has the potential to be dangerous). The benign ones are not considered cancerous: their cells look close to normal. They grow slowly and do not invade the neighboring tissues, or spread to other parts of the body. Already the malignant tumors are cancerous. If your cells are not controlled, they can grow and invade the tissues and nearby organs, eventually spreading to other parts of the body.

The Breast Cancer consists of a malignant tumor that develops from cells of the breast. Usually, it begins in the cells of the epithelium that lines the innermost layer of the duct in the breast. More rarely, the Breast Cancer you can start in other tissues, such as adipose and fibrous breast.

self-examination of Breast: it Is very important that women, once a month, to do the self-examination of the breast. The self-examination is an important measure to identify nodules of a possible Breast Cancer. This procedure is preventive and should be performed every month after the menstrual period. It is essential to be aware of changes such as retraction of the skin or nipple, swelling, asymmetry, designed, secretion, blood and lymph which arise in the axils, growing or not.

The self-examination should not be the only preventive method, since the Breast Cancer can be unnoticeable to the touch. This is why it is indicated to visit annually the gynecologist and/or mastologist to make the necessary examinations, such as mammography, ultrasound and breast magnetic resonance imaging.

How to do the self-examination of breast: To perform the self examination of the breast is important to make the evaluation in front of the mirror, standing or lying down:

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  • Front of the mirror: you Should get naked in front of the mirror and observe the size, shape, and color of the breasts, as well as swelling, abaixamentos, protrusions or roughness. First, let your arms down, then raise their arms and observe the breasts; finally, place the hands resting on the basin, making pressure to see if there is any change in the surface of the breast.
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  • self-examination in the foot: In walking, the best time is when the woman is in the bathroom with the body wet and the hands ensaboadas. Lift the left arm, placing the hand behind the head and palpate carefully left breast with the right hand with circular movements. Repeat this step for the breast on the right side. If you feel it is necessary for the woman to do with the fingers of the hand together and stretched in a circular motion across the breast and top to bottom. After you press the nipples gently to see if there is the output of any liquid
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  • self-examination lying down: To do the self-examination lying down, you need to lie down and put the left arm on the back of his neck, placing a pad or towel under the left shoulder to be higher and more comfortable. Palpate the left breast with the right hand and then do the same procedure with the right.

Types of Breast Cancer:

Common Types of Breast Cancer:

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  • Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Also known as carcinoma intradutal, is considered non-invasive, or Breast Cancer pre-invasive.
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  • Lobular Carcinoma In Situ: In lobular carcinoma in situ the cells look like cancer cells that grow on the lobes of the glands that produce milk, but do not develop through the wall of wolves.
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  • Carcinoma Ductal Invasive: This is the most common type of Breast Cancer. The ductal carcinoma invasive (or infiltrating) starts in a duct of milk, breaks through the wall of that duct, and grows into the fatty tissue of the breast.
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  • Lobular Carcinoma-Invasive: The lobular carcinoma invasive begins in the glands that produce milk (the wolves). As well as the ductal carcinoma invasive can spread to other parts of the body.

Special Types of Breast Carcinoma-Invasive: There are some special types of Breast Cancer that are subtypes of the invasive carcinoma. Some of them may have a better prognosis than ductal carcinoma invasive and include:

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  • Carcinoma cystic adenoid.
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  • Carcinoma metaplásico.
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  • medullary Carcinoma.
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  • Carcinoma cystadenocarcinoma.
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  • papilliferous Carcinoma.
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  • Carcinoma tubular.

Some of the subtypes have the same or maybe worse prognosis than ductal carcinoma invasive, and include:

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  • Carcinoma metaplásico.
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  • Carcinoma micropapilar.
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  • Carcinoma mixed (have the characteristics of ducal and lobular invasive).

In general, all of these subtypes are treated as ductal carcinoma invasive.

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less common Types of Breast Cancer:

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  • Inflammatory Breast Cancer: Is rum rare type that represents about 1 to 3% of the Breast Cancer.
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  • Paget’s Disease: This type of Breast Cancer starts in the breast ducts and spreads to the skin of the nipple and the areola. It is rare, representing about 1% cases of Breast Cancer.
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  • Tumor Filoide: Is a type of breast tumor is very rare, which develops in the stroma (connective tissue) of the breast, in contrast to carcinomas, which develop in the ducts or lobes.
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  • Angiosarcoma: This type of Cancer begins in cells that line the blood vessels or lymph vessels. Rarely occurs in the breast.

Causes of Breast Cancer: The Breast Cancer is a type of malignant tumor that originates in cells mammary. This disease mostly affects women, but men also can get to develop it. Every year, thousands of women die because of this disease, but unfortunately, in most cases, it is detected when it is already too late. In this article we will reveal the main causes of Breast Cancer that you should know.

With the advancement of medicine and technology, today it is possible to treat the Breast Cancer, and the expectation of life has increased considerably. However, here there is a big alert, since the lack of information about the disease is, in large part, one of the reasons why it is not detected in time. As the risk factors and causes of Breast Cancer are the keys to prevention.

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  • Age and gender
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  • Family History
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  • Genetics
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  • Menstrual Cycle
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  • Background of the Disease
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  • Consumption of alcoholic drinks
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  • Not to have Children, or to have After the 30
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  • Therapy with Hormones
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  • Obesity
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  • Radiation

Diagnosis of Breast Cancer: The Breast Cancer is a serious disease, but that can be cured. The sooner it is detected, the easier it will be to cure it. If at the time of diagnosis the tumor has less than 1 cm (initial stage), the chances of a cure reach 95%, according to the Brazilian Federation of Philanthropic Institutions Supporting Breast Health – Femama. The larger the tumor, the lower the probability of winning the disease. Early detection is, therefore, a key strategy in the fight against the Breast Cancer.

If the early diagnosis is the best strategy, the main weapon for victorious dessa fight is the mammogram, held once per year in all women with 40 years or more. It is from this age that the risk of disease begins to increase significantly. Mammography is the only diagnostic test able to detect the Breast Cancer when it still has less than 1 centimeter. With this size, the lump still can not be palpated. But it is with this size that it can be cured in up to 95% of the cases.

Symptoms of Breast Cancer: The Breast Cancer is initially asymptomatic. The easiest ways to find out right at the beginning are for exams such as mammography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. The examination of touch is also important, to note any change in the breast, schedule an appointment with the doctor. Some physical changes of the breasts can be a sign of Breast Cancer. When there is the presence of this evidence, it is possible that the Breast Cancer is at an advanced level. Keep an eye on some symptoms:

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  • Pain or inversion of the nipple
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  • Redness or scaling of the nipple or skin of the breast
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  • the Appearance of nodules (lumps) in the breast or in the underarms, and may be painful or not, to be hard and jagged or soft and round
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  • Presence of nipple discharge, bloody or not
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  • Swelling irregular part of the breast, which may become hot and red.
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  • Irritation or retraction of the skin or the appearance of roughness that is similar to the orange peel
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  • In cases more advanced, it is possible to appear ulceration on the skin with unpleasant odor

A lump in the breast does not necessarily mean Breast Cancer. A large part of the breast lumps are cysts and adenomas benign. The breasts change naturally throughout the menstrual cycle, however, to notice the changes and symptoms described above, it is essential to be consulted quickly.

Breast Cancer awareness ribbons

Risk Factors For Breast Cancer: The Breast Cancer and cancer in general does not have a single cause. Its development must be understood in function of a series of risk factors, some modifiable, others not. The family history is an important risk factor non-modifiable, the Breast Cancer. Women with first degree relatives (mother or sister) who have had the disease before the age of 50 may be more vulnerable.

Among other risk factors non-modifiable are increasing age, early menarche (first menstruation before 11 years of age), late menopause (last menstrual period after 55 years), have never gotten pregnant or had the first child after the age of 30.

Already the modifiable risk factors well known up to the moment are related to life style, as the excess weight and the regular intake (even moderate) alcohol. To change them, therefore, decreases the risk of developing the disease. However, the adoption of a healthy lifestyle should never delete the regular visits to the gynecologist, which include the annual mammogram after the age of 40 years.

Prevention of Breast Cancer: prevention Breast Cancer can be divided into primary and secondary: the first involves the adoption of healthy habits, and the second concerns the examination of the trace, in order to make early diagnosis:

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  • Workouts: A study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute pointed out that adolescents practicing intense physical exercise decrease the chances of suffering from Breast Cancer in the adult stage in up to 23%. In this analysis, the practice of physical activity should start around age 12 and last for at least ten years protection against the disease is noticed. The exercises are able to reduce the levels of estrogen, the hormone related to the risk of Breast Cancer. Exercise also decreases stress and helps to control weight, factors that also influence the development of the tumor. It is important in the prevention of Breast Cancer and prevention of recurrence.
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  • Breastfeeding: women who breastfeed their children for at least six months, have 5% less chances of developing the disease. When a woman breastfeeds, it stimulates the mammary glands and decreases the amount of hormones, such as estrogen from your bloodstream.
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  • balanced Diet: to Keep a proper diet helps in weight control, in the prevention of chronic diseases, and improves health as a whole. In addition, a healthy body works better, preventing the emergence of tumors. women who consume vegetables frequently are up to 45% less chances of developing Breast Cancer, according to a study conducted by Boston University. Foods such as broccoli, mustard, cabbage, and vegetables greens are rich in glucosinolates, which are amino acids with an important role in the prevention and treatment.
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  • Stress: women who live a routine very hectic and stressful are nearly twice as likely to develop Breast Cancer, when related to other risk factors. Breathing techniques, meditation and relaxation, practiced in Tai Chi and yoga help control stress and anxiety.
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  • Alcohol: The consumption of only 14 grams of alcohol per day can increase the chances of Breast Cancer by 30%. The mechanism of action by which alcohol consumption increases this risk still remains unknown, but we know that it influences the signaling pathway of estrogen.
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  • weight Control: When you reach the menopause, women with overweight or obesity are more at risk of developing the tumor. And more: the excess weight also increases the chances of the Breast Cancer be more aggressive.
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  • Do mammography: most women should start doing mammograms annually after the age of 50, but, for those who have a family history of Breast Cancer, the exam must begin 10 before the case early in the family. So if a close relative has had Breast Cancer to 40, you need to start doing mammograms annually from the age of 30. To do the mammogram annually at age appropriate can reduce the death for Breast Cancer in up to 30%, according to a study published in the journal Radiology.

Treatments of Breast Cancer: There are several treatments for Breast Cancer depend on the type and the stage of the disease:

Local Treatments: The local therapy aims to treat a tumor locally, without affecting the rest of the body. The types of local therapy used for the Breast Cancer include:

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  • Surgery
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  • Radiation therapy.

Systemic Treatments: systemic therapy refers to the use of medications that can be administered orally, or directly into the bloodstream to reach cancer cells in any part of the body. Depending on the type of Breast Cancer, different types of systemic treatments can be used, including:

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  • Chemotherapy.
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  • hormone Therapy.
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  • Therapy target.

The majority of women with Breast Cancer will make some type of surgery to remove the tumor. Depending on the type of Breast Cancer and in the staging of the disease, also need other forms of treatment. Treatment regimens are typical are based on the type of Breast Cancer, on stage, and in special situations:

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  • Breast Cancer invasive (Stages I-IV).
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  • ductal Carcinoma in situ.
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  • lobular Carcinoma in situ.
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  • Breast Cancer inflammatory process.
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  • Breast Cancer during pregnancy.

The scheme of treatment of each patient will also depend on other factors, such as general health condition and personal preferences. In function of the treatment options that are defined for each patient, the medical team should be formed by specialists, such as surgeon, oncologist and radioterapeuta. But, many others may be involved during the treatment, such as, nurses, nutritionists, social workers and psychologists. It is important that all treatment options are discussed with the doctor, as well as its possible side effects, to help you make the decision that best suits the needs of each patient.