Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Complications and Treatment

About 347 million people worldwide have diabetes – and the number continues to grow. Find out what causes diabetes and if it is just as likely that, if you suffer from obesity, you get to have diabetes.

what is diabetes?

Diabetes is a condition of long-term sugar levels in the blood are higher than normal.

There are two main types of diabetes.


  • type 1 Diabetes or diabetes insulin dependent . Usually (but not exclusively) observed in young people.
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  • type 2 Diabetes or diabetes non-insulin-dependent. It tends to affect adults over 40 years old and overweight, although recently it is more common in young people. Type 2 Diabetes occurs with greater frequency in people of the seed of the Surasian or African-Caribbean. There are also other types of diabetes

what is gestational diabetes in pregnancy?

women can develop Diabetes during pregnancy. Gestational Diabetes, as it is sometimes referred to, generally disappears after the birth of the baby. However, having gestational diabetes increases the risk of Type 2 Diabetes later in life.

type 1 diabetes existing can worsen during pregnancy.

Diabetes secondary to another problem

This is when Diabetes is caused as a result of another condition, such as inflammation of the pancreas or using a particular medication, such as diuretics or steroids (the most common cause)

How common is Diabetes?

Currently, more than 3 million people in the Uk have Diabetes, of which the majority is Type 2.

it is Estimated that more than half a million people have type 2 diabetes, but did not know it.

In the past 30 years, there was a 3-fold increase in the number of cases of diabetes in children.

This is especially of concern in relation to the increase in the number of children and adolescents with type diabetes, that was only seen in older people. This trend probably reflects the increase in the levels of obesity in young people during the same period.

there has Also been an increase in children with type 1 diabetes, whose cause is still unknown.

what causes diabetes?

glucose is sugar. Your level of sugar in the blood is the same as the level of glucose in the blood.

insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas in the abdomen. Controls the use of glucose within the body.

The levels of sugar in the blood will increase if:


  • The pancreas produces little or no insulin (leading to type 1 diabetes)
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  • The pancreas produces insulin, but is inadequate for the needs of the body and its efficacy is reduced (leading to type 2 diabetes)

The development of type 2 diabetes is thought to be related to factors associated with a western life style excessively sedentary, and the diet, because it is more common in people who do not exercise or are overweight.

gestational diabetes occurs because of many hormonal changes and demands that the body undergoes during pregnancy.

The diabetes secondary is similar to type 2 diabetes. It is quite variable, depending on the underlying cause.

Can be caused by damage to the pancreas (for example, alcohol) and drugs such as steroids and diuretics can impair insulin secretion from the pancreas.

common Symptoms of diabetes

glucose is one of the main fuels of the body. If there is not enough insulin in the body, the blood sugar levels rise and glucose is secreted through the urine. This causes:

If you have any of these symptoms on a regular basis, see your doctor and get a test for diabetes


  • Increased thirst
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  • frequent Urination
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  • Fatigue
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  • weight Loss, although appetite increases (especially in type 1 diabetes)
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  • Stinging, especially in the genital area or aphthital genital
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  • recurrent Infections in the skin, as the infection from the bladder or urinary tract.

People with type 1 diabetes usually develop these symptoms within a few days or weeks.

In type 2 diabetes, these symptoms generally do not become evident until years later. Many people are diagnosed with diabetes so casual during a routine medical examination.

inheritance is also part of the diabetes. 10% of people with type 1 diabetes have a family history of diabetes, while 30% of people with type 2 diabetes have a family history of the disease.

How is the diagnosis of diabetes?

People with type 2 diabetes typically have:


  • family History of diabetes
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  • Obesity
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  • high blood Pressure
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  • Problems vascular premature infants, such as heart attacks or cerebral vascular accidents
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  • A high level of triglycerides (a type of fat) in the blood
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  • Impotence (erectile dysfunction)

The levels of glucose are measured with a blood test:


  • Test random glucose: levels of glucose are randomly taken two times. Any number above 11.1 mmol / l suggests a diagnosis of diabetes.
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  • Test fasting glucose: the level of glucose is measured after an overnight fast on two different days. Above 7.0 mmol / l suggests a diagnosis of diabetes.
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  • A Hemoglobin Test Glicada (HbA1c): This is a blood test used to monitor diabetes, but can also be used to diagnose diabetes. An HbA1c below 42 mmol / mol is normal, between 42 and 47 mmol / mol suggests a high risk of developing diabetes and above 48 mmol / mol on two occasions (in someone without symptoms), diabetes will be diagnosed.

you May have to give a blood sample simple to do if you have other symptoms of diabetes.

Test glucose tolerance

During this test, the user is given a drink of glucose, which contains a standard amount of glucose (75 g). Blood samples are taken before the drink is consumed and two hours after. The test is done after a night of fasting.

The following parameters are used to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes after a test of tolerance to glucose.

A level of glucose the past two hours over and above 11.1 mmol / l is a diagnosis of diabetes.

A level less than 7.8 mmol / l is normal.

what if I have glucose intolerance?

If you have glucose intolerance, you should follow similar steps to people with diabetes:


  • to Lose weight in case of overweight – A reduction of 6% to 7% in body weight will reduce the chances of developing diabetes by 58% over the next 5 years.
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  • exercise more
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  • Stop smoking

You will need to keep the review and the annual review to be vigilant about the development of diabetes.

If the levels fall between these values, they suggest a decrease in glucose tolerance.

This is known as glucose intolerance (ITG)

glucose intolerance is more of a pre-diabetic condition.

The people who have the ITG are at greater risk of developing some of the conditions associated with diabetes, such as heart disease.

pregnant women with ITG exhibit a higher risk of spontaneous abortion and fetal death.

A level of HbA1c 42-47mmol / mole is called “at risk of diabetes or” pre-diabetes “, and also indicates a risk of developing diabetes. Losing weight can decrease this risk.

How diabetes is treated?

Diabetes is treated in two ways

A special diet used to be recommended for diabetes

it is Now thought that the best is a well balanced diet – but the consumption of calories is still important.

People with diabetes with excess weight need to incorporate weight loss as part of their treatment.


  • A combination of a healthy diet and exercise – in order to reduce the dietary intakes of fat, salt and sugar, increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables, and consume mainly foods with a low glycemic index. A minimum of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise should be performed every week.
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  • Medicines in tablets and / or insulin

injections of insulin increase the amount of insulin in your body, reducing the levels of sugar in the blood. Injections of insulin are used for all people with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes.

injections of insulin may be administered once per day as insulin action prolonged or injections of short-term action administered with more frequency during the day with meals and can be used in combination with a treatment with pills, if necessary.

New treatments without insulin for people with type 2 diabetes can help their bodies to produce more insulin and suppress the appetite, which, in turn, helps in weight loss.

There are different types of oral medications to treat type 2 diabetes:


  • Some will increase the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreas
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  • Some increase the action of insulin in the body
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  • Some retard absorption of glucose through the digestive system
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  • Some suppress a hormone called glucagon, which is secreted by the pancreas and to the worksregulation of insulin
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  • Some will increase the amount of glucose lost in the urine, reducing the blood glucose levels and helping in weight loss.

The treatment for diabetes depends on the individual

Start for the first time to take an insulin injection or take a pill of diabetes, and continue with a balanced diet and start an exercise program.

To help you get the best from your treatment, see a team of diabetes care at your health center or local hospital. You must be able to access classes of diabetes education that are taught in most places today.

You must be able to access classes of diabetes education that are taught in most places today. These classes will help you understand diabetes and help you manage this condition on their own.

in Addition to treating the high levels of glucose in the blood, it is extremely important that people with diabetes keep their cholesterol levels and blood pressure under control to reduce the risk of complications.

blood sugar Levels

The monitoring of blood sugar levels is an important aspect of treatment, especially in type 1 diabetes where levels can change markedly.

This can be done easily at home with a small blood glucose meter.

Depending on the reading, you will need to adjust your diet, amount of exercise or your insulin dose.

In people with type 2 diabetes, the glucose test is only necessary if you take insulin

people with type 2 diabetes do not need regular tests of glucose, the less insulin is administered.

Controlling diabetes

in The long term, diabetes is monitored through routine checkups of your team of diabetes care at your health center or local hospital.

The goal is to determine if your treatment is satisfactory and to look for evidence of long-term complications, such as problems with the eyes or the kidneys.

The tests for these types of complications usually are made in your annual check-up, while the routine tests can be done every three to six months.

Comments routine

You can expect the following during a routine examination:


  • A blood test to check the level of HbA1c (a measure of glucose over the long term) in the blood.
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  • Evaluation of readings of glucose of home, if necessary.
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  • Discussion of the diet
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  • blood Pressure
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  • weight Control
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  • Other tests, and tests determined by your doctor

Comments annual

You can expect the following during an annual review:


  • A blood test to check the level of HbA1c. Your level of HbA1c depends on your age and other medical problems. An approximate level of HbA1c of 53mmol / mol is considered to be in good control, but this value must be customized for each individual.
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  • Analysis of blood to determine the amount of fats (cholesterol) in the blood. The cholesterol should be ideally below 4.0 mmol / L.
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  • blood Test to check kidney function and various salts in the body (mainly sodium and potassium)
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  • blood Pressure – most people with diabetes should have a blood pressure below 140 / 80mmHg
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  • urine Specimen to determine the presence of protein (albuminúria). The appearance of this protein in the urine may indicate that small blood vessels (capillaries) in the kidneys are starting to be affected by diabetes.
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  • foot Exam, including a check-to-multipoint of the foot to assess circulation, and check the feel of the vibration to determine if there is any neuropathy (damage to the nerve) in his foot.
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  • weight Control
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  • Discussion of exercise habits
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  • Discussion of smoking
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  • eye Exam – is not for checking if you need glasses, this is an examination retiniano as such (the back of the eye), usually done with a digital photograph in your local health centre, hospital or office. a ophthalmologist. This will be part of a program review of the retina diabetic to which you are invited – see your team of diabetes about it.

long-term Perspective

type 1 diabetes and type 2 brings the risk of complications, but this risk is reduced dramatically if your diabetes, blood pressure and cholesterol are controlled and you do not stop smoking.

Complications of acute

acute complications of diabetes include:


  • low Level of glucose (called attack hypoglycemic, or “low”), caused by treatment with insulin or oral hypoglycemics, which increase the secretion of insulin by the pancreas.
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  • diabetic Ketoacidosis, a fatal condition caused by a lack of insulin. This occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes, but a high level of glucose similar can occur in Type 2.

diabetic Complications of the advanced stage


  • Retinopathy (eye disease) – it causes blindness in some cases
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  • kidney Disease of diabetes, which can lead to renal failure
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  • Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) – this occurs in smokers, particularly in those with high blood pressure and abnormal levels of fat in the blood

Complications of the advanced stage usually do not develop until 10 or 15 in people with type 1 diabetes.

In people with type 2 diabetes, however, symptoms can appear close to the time of the diagnosis as such, since the disease can be maintained without being detected for a long period of time.

Many studies now show that a good control of glucose can significantly reduce or even stop complications. This involves maintaining the blood sugar levels as normal as possible.

recent Studies have also confirmed the need for people with diabetes to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis.

This is because if you have type 2 diabetes, you have 4 to 5 times more risk of developing a serious problem with your circulation which can lead to a heart attack or stroke.

The main risk factors include:


  • Smoking
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  • high blood Pressure
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  • high Levels of fats such as cholesterol in the blood

To take precautions to manage these problems, you will reduce your chances of developing complications such as heart disease.

Resources for diabetics:

How to prevent diabetes

6 best substitute of sugar for diabetics

10 Foods completely banned for diabetic

15 Exercises for diabetics